POPULATION. 61% in the Union (22,300,000), 39% in the Confederacy (9,100,000 of which the slave population was 3,500,000 or 40% of the total.) [the Union’s population was four times large than the nonslave population of the Confederacy, Union armies possessed a greater reserve of manpower, which was of decisive importance in 1864 and 1865, plus a more substantial work force to make the materials of war.);
WHITE MALE POPULATION (18 – 45 years of age). the Union’s white male population was 4,600,00 and the Confederacy’s was 1,100,000.
RAILROAD MILEAGE. 66% in the Union or 22,000 miles; 34% in the Confederacy or 9,000 miles (Union had twice as much trackage as the Confederacy, the Union had a transportation system far superior to that of the Confederacy, including a better integrated system of railroad lines, the Confederate system of railroads had collapsed by 1864);
WEALTH PRODUCED BY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN 1861. 75% in the Union, 25% in the Confederacy;
BANK DEPOSITS. the bank deposits of the Union were $207,000,000 and the Confederacy’s were $47,000,000 or 4.4 to 1 in favor of the Union;
FACTORIES. 81% in the Union, 19% in the Confederacy (the value of manufactured goods in the Union was $1,730,000,000 and for the Confederacy was $156,000,000; the value of textiles (the foundation for the first Industrial Revolution) was $181,000,000 to $10,000,000 for the Confederacy or 11 to 1 in favor of the Union; the Union had an advanced industrial system by 1862 and therefore was able to manufacture most of their materials for war, the Confederacy has no choice but to rely on imports from Europe which had to navigate through the Union blockade of the Confederate coast and ports.);
FIREARMS PRODUCTION. the value of firearms production by the Union was $2,290,000 to the value of such production by Confederacy was$73,000 (a 31 to 1 advantage for the Union);
PIG IRON PRODUCTION the Union’s pig iron production was 951,000 tons and the Confederacy’s was 37,000 tons. (a 26 to 1 advantage for the Union).
SHIPPING TONNAGE. the Union’s shipping tonnage was 4,600,000 and the Confederacy’s was 290,000 (a 16 to 1 advantage for the Union).
COAL PRODUCTION. the coal production of the Union was 13,680,000 tons to the Confederacy’s coal producation of 650,000 tons or a 21 to 1 advantage for the Union.
FARMS. 67% in the Union, 33% in the Confederacy;
DRAFT ANIMALS. the Union possessed 5,800,00 draft animals and the Confederacy possessed 2,900,000 or a 2 to 1 advantage for the Union.
CORN AND WHEAT PRODUCTION. the Union production of corn and wheat was 698,000,000 bushels while the Confederacy produced 314,000,000 bushels or a 2.2 to 1 advantage for the Union.
COTTON PRODUCTION. the cotton production of the Union was 43,000 bales and the Confederacy’s production was 5,344,000 bales or a 124 to 1 advantage for the Confederacy (this advantage was never substantial exploited by the Confederacy because of the Union blockade of their coastline and ports and the need for cotton by England and France was never sufficient for them to extend recognition to the Confederacy as a nation; many Southern warehouses were filled with cotton that could not be sold; after the war a good number of shrewd Southerners made fortunes speculating in stored cotton.)
SOURCES: The United States Census of 1860. E. B. Long, THE CIVIL WAR DAY BY DAY (New York; Doubleday, 1971): 723.
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